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How does ChatGPT work? A Comprehensive Guide


Andrew NG

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ChatGPT is Open AI’s latest product, released in late 2022. It is an artificial intelligence-based tool used for text generation. It can perform various tasks, including text completion, translating content, writing poems, and lyrics, solving maths problems, etc. The tool is fine-tuned to generate human-like responses for every question asked.

Are you wondering, “how does ChatGPT work?”

This guide shares everything about how ChatGPT works and its capabilities. So, without any further ado, let’s begin!

How does ChatGPT work?

ChatGPT is a chatbot that responds to users’ queries like a human. That means whenever you ask it a question or command it to perform a task, it will refer to its training and respond accordingly. This might sound complicated, but it’s not so. Here is how ChatGPT works:

Pre-training the AI

Most of the AI models available in the market are trained using the supervised learning method. This method requires a human to verify the answers produced by the machine during the training phase.

The person will confirm whether the responses are accurate. The person will also have to anticipate what output would be produced for a given input. This process has various limits, mainly because it needs subject matter expertise.

Alternatively, ChatGPT uses a non-supervised learning method, making it capable of performing various tasks simultaneously. The model is trained so that the output is not connected to a specific input.

That means the developers keep training ChatGPT by adding a pool of information to its system. This enables ChatGPT to respond to users’ queries accurately.

Transformer architecture

ChatGPT uses the transformer architecture of neural networks. This architecture is made of several layers, and each layer has multiple sub-layers. However, the model has two main sub-layers: the self-attention layer and the feedforward layer.

The self-attention layer calculates the importance of each word in the sequence. The feedforward layer implements non-linear transformations to the input data. This helps the transformer understand the relationship between words and sequences.

ChatGPT is trained using the same concept. Data is fed into its system, and it makes predictions for the output. The model is updated to produce better results every time.

ChatGPT’s training datasets

ChatGPT is based on Open AI’s language processing model GPT-3. This model uses the WebText training dataset. This dataset has a library of more than four terabytes of text data. ChatGPT can learn contexts and patterns between words and phrases using this massive dataset.

Open AI has also released a new dataset having 160,000 humans having a distinct personas. This dataset is used in GPT-3 and ChatGPT. ChatGPT produces human-like and personalized responses using this dataset.

ChatGPT has also developed other datasets like Cornell Movie Dialog Corpus, DailyDialog, and Ubuntu Dialogue Corpus and fed them into ChatGPT. These datasets help in fine-tuning ChatGPT, which eventually generates human-like responses.

What about human involvement in pre-training?

Though ChatGPT is trained using the non-supervised learning method, there are signs of a touch of supervised training. The platform itself has been prepared using a combination of supervised and non-supervised learning methods.

The same was mentioned in an article by Times magazine, claiming that Open AI paid $1.32 to $2 per hour to Kenyans for finding sexually-explicit content and flagging it for ChatGPT.

What are ChatGPT’s capabilities?

ChatGPT is an artificial intelligence-based chatbot. But it can perform various interesting tasks in addition to responding to human answers. Below are some capabilities of ChatGPT:

Text generation

ChatGPT can generate text for the input given to it. It uses its database to complete the text and create responses in human-like language and conversational tone.

Text completion

If you struggle to complete a text or paragraph, ChatGPT can be your buddy from now on! You can use ChatGPT to finish your phrases. ChatGPT can complete sentences by pulling data from its pre-trained database and generating responses accordingly.


ChatGPT is another search engine like Google. You can ask it any question, and it will answer accordingly. The platform can also answer questions in bullet points or list format.


One of the exciting parts of ChatGPT is that it summarizes long paragraphs or other text. It cannot summarize novels but can summarize a few pages. It can also explain the summarized texts.

Text translation

ChatGPT is also a translator! You can translate text into English, French, Korean, Japanese, Italian, Portuguese, Russian, Chinese, Arabic, and German. However, be careful while using AI tools for translation, as they might not always produce grammatically correct answers.

Conversational AI

The best part about ChatGPT is that it produces human-like answers. That means the tone is conversational making the platform interactive. This also makes it an excellent platform for integrating with other sites like company websites, e-commerce platforms, etc.

Sentiment analysis

If you want to check sentiments in a given sentence, ChatGPT can do it! ChatGPT can check whether a review is positive, negative, or neutral. This can help companies decide the performance of their products or services.

Named entity recognition

ChatGPT can also be used for recognizing people in a company. It can find employees’ locations, countries, names, and other data. However, the data won’t be updated as ChatGPT was last trained in 2021. So, any data added after that won’t be recognized by it.

Parts-of-speech tagging

Finally, ChatGPT is your companion for correcting stupid grammatical errors! This tool can be used for grammar suggestions, sentence formation, spelling mistakes, etc. It can also suggest synonyms, antonyms, etc.


Where does ChatGPT get its data?

ChatGPT is an AI model trained using various datasets. Its data comes from multiple sources, including Wikipedia, Journals, research papers, news articles, online websites, etc.

Does ChatGPT use the internet?

ChatGPT does not use the internet. It cannot search the internet for a given query. It responds to users’ questions using the data fed into it. That means it refers to the datasets used to train it and responds to users accordingly.

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